Literature review on SQL

Companies are involved in different operations that result in the generation of information. The information is never discarded rather it should be kept for the future references. The question to ask is how to keep the data. The database concept came previously with the usage of the file database until we came to settle on the sequential databases. The primary databases are the SQL databases and the Oracle databases that do perform the same job but with the application of different principles in the implementation of the functionalities. A database is described as the collection of related data that is organized and stored at a collective place for easily accessing, management and administration of the data.

History of databases and SQL
Database came in to ensure that the data stored can be retrieved or shared amongst the users without the know that there is sharing. In 1970, Dr. Codd published a paper “A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks” that was the building block of the relational database system. He described a new structure for data within the database that brought the relational database system that is still in use up to current (Sumathi & Esakkirajan, 2007). On the other side, Chamberlin and Boyce (employees at IBM Corporation, Inc) developed a query language they referred to as Specifying Queries As Relational Expressions (SQUARE). The language did apply the set theory a predicate mathematics to have the select of data from the database. SQUARE acted as the building block for another language (Instructional Software Research and Development Group., 2006).

In 1974, Chamberlin and Boyce refined the SQUARE language to publish the Structured English Query Language (SEQUEL). The refinement focused on the data retrieval from the database, and they had taken the focus to applying the top-down programming that required the linear notation, and readable programs which are easy to modify and maintain. The result of the implemented got the description of the SEQUEL as structured (Chamberlin & Boyce, 1974). In 1979, SQL got into its existence by dropping the vowels EUE, the SEQUEL was found out to be a registered mark trade for Hawker Siddeley Aircraft Company that forced IBM to change the SEQUEL to SQL.

SQL Architectural framework
The architecture of Pl/SQL describes its working with the Oracle. The PL/SQL block is made up procedural and SQL statements as it describes how the SQL in Oracle interprets the PL/SQL block. The PL/SQL architecture contains the block, engine, and the Oracle server. The engine is concerned with the compiling and executing the SQL block, and the PL/SQL engine contains the PL/SQL procedural statement executor that executes the procedural statements. On the other side, the Oracle server contains the SQL statement executor that executes the SQL statement (Rosenzweig & Silvestrova, 2004). Therefore, the PL/SQL engine is in coordination with the Oracle Server for purposes of processing the block.

According to Instructional Software Research and Development Group (2006), SQL statements can be classified either;

Data Definition Language (DDL)
Data Manipulation Language (DML)
Data Query Language (DQL)
Data Control Language (DCL)
Data Administration Statements (DAS)
Transaction Control Statements (TCS)
Features of SQL
Structured Query Language (SQL) has got developed and meets the ANSI and the ISO standards as a computer language that can use in creation and manipulation of hierarchical databases. SQL has the capability of allowing the proficient user to undertake some administration activities such as create some views, update, delete records and retrieve the data from the database. It is very simple and easy for one to learn because it is sequential and structured in nature and it is to work with some other desirable database programs such as MS Access, and Sybase (Groff & Weinberg, n.d).

SQL database, the SQL Server 2005 and SQL Server 2008, have the data mining architecture that enabled the models to enhance business intelligence. Business intelligence components can easily get integrated into SQL server that includes the On-line analytical processing (OLAP), SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) and the reporting services (Crat, Tang & MacLennan, 2013). SQL has been on developed and currently exhibit some attractive, unique features of supporting character sets, collations, and translations. A transaction can roll back on save points. The database language supports Boolean data type and large objects of binary and the character LOBs (Kreines, 2000).

Benefits of SQL
SQL does not require navigational instructions as it is coded without embedded data that simplifies the retrieval of data.
The applications applying the SQL are portable as well as the language gives a high level of abstraction, and its internal implementation makes it independent.
SQL is simple to learn and easily handle complex situations at the same time the language has no ambiguity about the way a query interprets the data.
The SQL is used in definition of the data structure; control the accessibility of data, delete, insertion and modification of data
Proposal
Iteration 1: Orientation
The orientation program captured my attention by familiarizing me to a few identities. I first had to sign the internship acceptance form from the Human Resource department after which I am to be directed to my designated department. Within the working point, I will introduce myself to the work mates and move around to have the familiarization of the company strategic location. I will visit the specified departments starting with the operational section from where I will have to understand the company core business operations, procedures, principles and the goals to achieve. The working conditions will also be provided to avoid the misrepresentation at working point.

Iteration 2: Understanding the SQL concepts
After the understanding of the company operations and my expectations, I will take some critical time to have the deep understanding of the SQL concepts. Databases go by experience and understanding of what the requirements are according to the company procedures. During the iteration, I will make some consultation from my working mates so that I take to know where I need to take the concentration of understanding. Secondly, I will undertake some online research to have the deep experience of coding and the most critical operations of the SQL. The model accordance to the Model will be under study. The personal studying will further involve the data analytics and the understanding of the big data. The iteration will be the preparation for the training that I will be taken through by the assigned supervisor. At the end of the iteration, I would have sharpened my knowledge and have the best theoretical understanding of SQL as far as the database is concerned.

Iteration 3: Training
The training will go through the application of the SQL and the implementation of the Oracle databases. The training will be conducted primarily to have the clear, practical understanding of the Oracle database and the SQL database. Define the principles of the application modes of the databases. The training will be conducted through the labs of the company where normal staff training and seminars take place. The process will be the preparation of the primary object of designing a database exercising gall the database administration and maintenance. Therefore, by the end of the training session, I would have gained the practical skills and experience of database administration.

Iteration 4: SQL Database designing
The iteration will get me through the steps prior designing and development of a database. First, I will have to undertake some feasibility so that I may be able to define the requirements of the company and the end users to be adhered to during the SQL database development. After then the designing of the application will take its course by applying primarily all the knowledge of SQL database to have the database that meets the determined requirements after that the last iteration will follow.

Iteration 5: SQL database administration and management
The iteration is the other critical activity that I will be involved. The primary expectations are ensuring that the database is up to date the demands of the end users are accomplished. During the process I will be updating the database, deleting some entries. Furthermore, create the views procedures and the queries as well as reports and more so enhance the security within the database. Actually, at the end of it all, I would have got the best knowledge than ever that will get me into the market with the desirable experience and skills.

Enterprise Architecture for Health Insurance Exchange

The portal design shall take the following interface
Website Company Name (AGRI- POWER PORTAL)

Links navigation Link
Home

Services
Commercial
Accounts
About us
Login
Logout
Farm Chemicals
Farm tools
Farm projects

Horticulture
Livestock
Livestock Faming
Bee keeping
Seeds
Transport

Comments
Agricultural Dash Board Portal Major Display Area
Figure1 : The portal Design for Agricultural Based Enterprise
The agriculture based portal shall provide web-based services to the esteemed customers and the potential customer. The agribusiness portal shall contain three structural designs to incorporate the services to the clients. The portal is a dynamic website that provides all agricultural services across the world. The portal provides services on farm-based services like purchasing chemicals, use of chemicals and consultation services. The portal has horticulture farming, livestock farming, and beekeeping services. The display area provides streaming advertisements on projects and the news about agriculture.

Simple Information Exchanges
The secure health information exchange supports the following services to the clients

Document querying and retrieving
Direct messaging via PUSH technology
The system composes discrete data and information from multiple CCDs that contain detailed data from multiple sources. The system provides data sharing techniques to subscribers through the data mining and data warehousing approach (Bocciarelli, & D’Ambrogio, 2014).

Part B: Integrated Architectures
Enterprise integration for Business Services module supports enterprise process and goals through providing multiplatform programming support platform. The system integrates the business functions using VMware technology that acts as the middleware to support different platforms in other programming languages like XML, COBOL, Java, Microsoft Dot Net and others (Juric, et al…, 2010).

Legacy applications include the business application service and infrastructure services. The modules provide the integration of the database services through the modification of data and information. The sessions support data and information conversion to different formats. The strategies get applied during database development process, data mining activities and during data migration from one database design infrastructure to another.

B2B Integration and management services provide secure transfer and sharing of information between the public and private business enterprises across the world (Dorn, et al…, 2009). The system allows collaboration of business enterprises through subscribing to the Intranet cloud services. The platform supports the integration and interagency communications across the globe. The system supports the G2G systems that allow effective government interventions (Dorn, et al…, 2009). The system facilitates communication between the government agencies. The Interaction services systems support the intra-agency relations through the elimination of barriers for infrastructure principles and standard specified by the EAI policies. Through the interaction services module, inter-agency communications get approved enabling collaboration between people processes and information. The NIEM (National Information Exchange), development services platform, integrates the communication development environments through equalizing sanctions and standards from different agencies.

The system allows designing and creation of solutions depicted within different business entities. The collaboration allows acceptability of the various development standards for business entities to enter into the global market. The NIEM platform links the B2B systems to facilitate mutual interrelationships between different business operations (Dorn, et al…, 2009).

ESB Exploration: The enterprise service bus allows effective communication link between different enterprise activities and function to facilitate effective data and information transfer. All network and communication protocols get implemented through accommodating all sources of networks topologies and standards within the bus (Chandrasekaran, 2010). The bus offer powerful encapsulation, encryption and information hiding techniques to facilitate secure source to destination delivery of data and information (Chandrasekaran, 2010). The Mule architecture serves more effectively and efficiently compared to email based protocols. The message is secure via mule architecture and supports UDDI messaging protocols. The ESB architecture supports the orchestration, transformation, transportation mediation and non-functional consistency that form the core integration principles (Chandrasekaran, 2010).

Smart enterprises the smart enterprise capability is maintained via the incorporation of the extranet and intranet services that facilitate the extraction of data and information from different databases. The system allows digging of data from various databases through data mining techniques. The system supports the smart enterprise feature like intelligent decision support system. The enterprise business system implements the intelligence support capabilities through the use of access service model and the service registry database. The data and the information are supplied through cloud computing services that link the enterprise system to the World Wide Web interfaces. The Virtual technology that implements the industrial formats like the X12, the EDIFACTS, the SWIFT, the ACORD, the HIPAA and the HLA have been applied to support IBM web sphere transformation extension (Chandrasekaran, 2010). The platforms act as the universal transformation engine.

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