Legal and Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property

There are numerous issues that relate to the attribute intellectual property, advertising as well as regulations in the contemporary workplaces. All the components of marketing, as well as advertising mix are regulated by the diverse laws along with limitations. The ethical attributes are reliant on the social code as well as the daily morality considering that the discussion relates to the subject of customer loyalty abortion and stem cells. The issues in this assignment result to the invoking of certain serious arguments which prove the fact that there are certainly ethical issues which are to be taken into consideration and that they have to be addressed. These ethical attributes that companies face are in most cases within the attributes of the morals as well as principles of the right and the wrong actions (Davidson, 2002). The study is on the moral accreditations in the context of the attributes that are considered to be right by individuals who are in particular professions. The overall ethical attributes, however, emanate from the attributes of advertising, suppliers, personal selling, contracts, and pricing. The chief ethical components that relate to businesses revolve around the issues of market research, audiences as well as pricing. The common attribute that revolves around the subject of markets research is the fact that it has a high likelihood of invading the consumer privacy. The additional attribute is the fact that there is a high likelihood that the implementation of the research is going to be on the stereotypic attributes, which is unethical conduct. It is imperative that organizations employ the market research as a marketing tool as well as a model of obtaining feedback of their performance (Halbert & Ingulli, 2012). About the issue of selecting the market audience, there are certain attributes that could contribute to the development of unethical precepts. Among the unethical issues that arise during the market, a selection is the fact that it is unethical for organizations to exclude the potential customers in the assessment of the target market. It additionally raises the issue of differentiation of customers in the context of selective marketing as well as targeting the clients who indicate some form of vulnerability. The issues of predatory pricing along with price discrimination encompass the additionally unethical attributes through which businesses can negatively impact the purchasing decisions of their clients. The exploitation of the social paradigms is the additional attribute in which the cultural, as well as ethnic sensitivities can make a certain group find come models of marketing offensive (Lindgreen & Swaen, 2010). Post purchase dissonance is additionally the other ethical attribute that characterizes the contemporary businesses in that the attributed depicted in the advertisements are not what the customer gets from the purchase of the product. An additional unethical issue in the intellectual property encompasses failure to pay the party that innovate a product as a result of the time and research that is committed in the development of the product. It is additionally unethical to offer intellectual property rights to products that have not been passed through adequate research. PharmaCARE does not have the research in the AD23 as well as the fact that it had not passed through the FDA considerations before the marketing of the products, the attributes that make their conduct unethical regarding product safety as regulated by the FDA.
The argument relating to the issue of consumer direct marketing is a tricky issue to argue for as well as against about the fact that although there are the evident demerits to the approach, it also has benefits for the consumers. Direct to consumer marketing encompasses multiple discussions particularly relating to its adoption by the pharmaceutical companies. DTC approach allows the direct marketing of products to customers by pharmaceutical companies. In this case, the companies’ possess the advantage of being in a superior situation for the identification of the patients’ needs in addition to being able to influence their decisions. In support of the Direct-to-Consumer marketing by drug companies, it offers an opportunity for the consumers to be conscious of the drugs that are on the market (Davidson, 2002). The application of the DTC marketing presents an opportunity for the consumers to learn about the side effects the drug may be caused, along with the purposes of the drug regarding the health of the human body. Ensuring that consumers are aware of a drug in the market that help or otherwise harm them either in the short or long run is very significant. The state of affairs, in this case, prove advantageous to the patients in that through the adoption of the DTC, companies will be in a superior state of discussing their products with patients. Additionally, the implementation of the DTC by the pharmaceutical companies supply the patients with the effective information concerning drugs, enabling their clients to possess better skills in the administration of the drugs as well as assisting them to stipulate the accurate use of a drug (Sullivan & She, 2003). Furthermore, DTC present education along with support to the patients about their wellbeing moreover medical care, motivating their clients to take the prescribed drugs.
On the other hand, the use of DTC by pharmaceutical companies reduces the duration that patients take in the implementation of their evaluation. In this case, by the adoption of the DTC, drug companies are rarely motivated to undertake adequate research and consequently evaluate the consequence of their drugs on the patients. The companies fail to conduct due research in evaluating the side effects of their drugs before administering them to the patients. The repercussions of this situation are the fact that it is going to cause significant damages to patient’s health. It is the same case that PharmaCARE is facing. In this case, the company is facing negative consequences because of their drugs as the company was failed to implement adequate research before the administration of their drug (Lindon, 2012). Owing to the direct marketing, patients do not see the need for taking the advice of the doctor involve themselves in self-treatment, an attribute that on most occasions cause major risk to the patient’s life (Sullivan & She, 2003). Because the main rationale for the operation of the pharmaceutical companies it to promote the health as well as the wellbeing of their clients, the possible harms that the model generates makes it and ill-advised marketing strategy and should thus be discouraged. It is thus imperative that the DTC model of marketing be discouraged for all the drug companies as their products have the possibility of impacting a huge population.

3. It is imperatively clear that the state pharmacy boards are going to proceed with the fundamental responsibility of the daily operations of the oversight by the state-licensed pharmacies that compound drugs in tandem with the terms of section 503A of the federal food, drugs as well as Cosmetic Act (FDCA). The organs that are responsible for the regulation of pharmacies under the present authoritarian scheme are a licensed physician, the licensed pharmacist, as well as the outsourcing facilities. The act of combining, Mixing, otherwise modifying a drug to adapt to an individual patient is a dangerous compound of the drug. The act of compounding drugs does not feature under the approvals of the FDA, which specify the assertion that the FDA does not consider the compounding as a safe attribute.

There is, however, an additional classification category whereby the pharmacies are referred to as compounding pharmacies (Noordin, nd). These pharmacies are focused on the distribution of atypical drugs. The pharmacies lay their focus on the production of drugs that have a different dosage for the drugs, which does not feature among the commonly produced drugs. The production of these of drugs is meant to help patients who have special needs. It is imperative that the compound pharmacies be analyzed and consequently licensed to facilitate the maintenance of a standardized drug improvement approach. It is vital in helping to uphold the quality levels along with ensuring their drugs fall within the Food and Drug Administration standards in the context of their inspections, mixing, preparation, packaging, moreover labeling of their drugs. With the objective of ensuring that the avoid FDA did not interrupt their business, PharmaCARE established the CompCARE to operate as their compounding pharmacy and to sell specific formulations to individuals on a direction basis (Halbert & Ingulli, 2012). It is imperative that the parties involved at PharmCARE and the FDA should have undertaken necessary measures to guarantee that product safety measures were implemented prior the release of any prescribed drugs to individuals. It is clear that PharmaCARE is will face legal exposure about its practice. My assertion, in this case, is that PharmaCARE will not be impacted as one would expect. The rationale for the assertion is the fact that PharmaCARE created an auxiliary CompCARE with the sole objective of shielding themselves from the FDA. PharmaCARE failed to specify that CompCARE was going to be an outsourcing facility to avoid inspections by the FDA.

4. PharmaCARE has managed to make use of both the United States and Colberian law to help them protect their intellectual property. The company managed to attain the protection of the US by designing a legal counsel, a strategy that acted to protect the company. The company additionally ensured that the licensing, as well as the subcontracts, encompassed details of the intellectual property language. These attributes made it possible for the company to monitor as well as analyzes all their markers in addition to upholding the due diligence (Lindgreen & Swaen, 2010). The company additionally registered and consequently secured all their trademark, patents and additionally accomplished complete border protection from the US and Colberian governments.

There are various ways in which the company could compensate John as well as the people of Colberia, with one of these ways being regarding the finances. The company pays a $1 a day, which is outright exploitation of the employees. The additionally evident poor living conditions of the individuals implies that the company is causing more pain in the lives of these individuals, thus by paying more will have a huge impact on ensuring that there is the improvement in the living conditions of these people. The additional means that the company can use in repaying John is by developing more manufacturing plants in the region as it would act to provide additional job opportunities for the residents (Noordin, nd). Additionally, the strategy will aid in the reduction of the costs for the individuals and also offer these residents with benefits as dental and medical care. The attribute is going to assist in bringing facilities like water and other social amenities. The other strategy that the company can employ is in assisting the population by offering education opportunities to their people as well as sponsoring the education of the children. The strategy is going to help these residents to construct schools improving the individual skills and thus aiding the nation improves in a huge manner.

One of the recent examples of intellectual property cases relates to the high-tech industry in the US whereby Oracle sued against Rimini Street. In this case, Rimini Street offers Oracle with support service. Oracle argues that Rimini engaged in deception, unfair competition, copyright infringement, unjust enrichment as well as breach of contract and with Oracle. The dispute was heard in Las Vegas District Court, with the court dismissing the arguments by Rimini and found that the claims by Oracle were true. The Court ruled in the favor of Oracle with its claims about Rimini Street and its involvement in the gigantic theft of intellectual property being proved true. The intellectual property theft of Oracle resulted in the loss of its secrets concerning database system, which impacted the company’s profit since the secret programs copied made it impossible for the company to secure their unique product features. In additionally the theft impacted the company’s reputation negatively as the clients developed fear about the protection of their sensitive data that is in the custody of the company.
There are numerous issues that relate to the death of john’s wife. John is one of the individuals who carried out the research on the invention of AD23. Among the issues that resulted in the death is the failure of legal consideration by FDA in towards the regulation of the drugs according to the standards set by the FDA. PharmCARE developed pharmacy product known as CompCARE with the objective of avoiding the scrutiny of the FDA (Noordin, nd). CompCARE was one of the low-cost companies and was administering very low cost for their renovation along with marketing efforts. The company employed direct marketing to the patients along with companies, an attribute that was unethical since compound companies selling products in bulkiness are not permitted to use DTC. In light of the DTC marketing, the company did not have an adequate opportunity to evaluate the reaction of the drug on their consumers. John’s wife is among the heart attack victims after consuming AD23 (Lindon, 2012). The company’s lack of research on the drug, the lack of testing along with evaluation and the consequent greediness for profit is the main explanation for the death of a large number of people who used AD23 including John’s wife.
One of the most important attributes that make an employee risks their life is in becoming a whistleblower in issues that the organization is making profits on and would like kept a secret to avoid the consequences. Additionally, it is common that the politics that arise in the company when one tries to report on a certain illegality in the company can make them lose their jobs. In this case, all the concerned authorities should base their focus in ensuring that John receives a fair treatment from the company and that his welfare is adequately protected. John should additionally be given armed protection considering that he is at the center of the drug that is killing people and the fact that there is a huge liability on the side of the company, some people may say which to harm to ensure that he does not become a witness.

Changing roles of correctional officers

Introduction
Before the 1960s, roles of correctional officers were custody-oriented. Personnel selection standards were low and in, many cases they never existed. Candidates for correctional officer jobs were only required to have minimal education level and in some prisons, education wasn’t considered in hiring. The main incentive for correctional officer job remained security provided by the civil service employment in an employment that many found appealing as well as lucrative as compared to farming or manufacturing jobs. Individuals were also forced work as prison officers by unfortunate circumstance like job scarcity unavailability of job scarcity, layoffs, injuries, or as a result of their failure in their primary occupation choice. As a consequence, the typical correctional officer was a rural, male with little or no education. They were also politically conservative characterized by brutality and they in many case proved slow in accepting change. Many came to correctional jobs at relatively mature ages after success in the civilian life while other had retired from military. Training in all cases was done the job and always involved nothing on top of a recruit being handed cell block keys and t instructed to quickly learn the demands of the job (Josi & Sechrest, 1998). The custody- focused correctional officer role definition remained unambiguous. Their roles were to keep security as well as control by enforcing institutional regulations. The accomplish ability to this goal based on unchallenged authority to accuse and punish prisoners from violating violations rules without regarding the due process as well as inmate rights. The control approaches to prisoners relied on physical coercion as well as discipline.

Correctional Officers were therefore referred to as always guards since guarding prisoners was their sole expected role. As a consequence, there exist a widespread public view that correctional officer have low intelligence, alienated, cynical, brutal, burned out, alienated stressed, and their role is to repress minority people. However, commencing 1960s a wide range of prisoner rehabilitation programs became introduced in prison institutions that historically were viewed custody and control as only organizational goal. The new rehabilitation emphasis also introduced an expectation that correctional officers were to go beyond their vividly defined security tasks and assume the much more ambiguous responsibility of human service-oriented workers who would help highly trained treatment professionals in prisoners’ rehabilitation. Rehabilitation introduction in [prisons developed an ambiguous social organization through the introduction of sets of contradictory objectives. The custody goal requires the maintenance of enough social distance between correctional officers and prisoners and avoiding informal relationships, affective ties as well as discretionary enforcement of rules. However, treatment goal demand relaxed discipline, informal relationships minimizing social distance, affective ties as well as the exercising of discretionary rule enforcement depending on particular inmate characteristics as well as circumstances. Punitive regulatory policies became subordinated to an expectation that correctional were to be human-oriented and flexible. Many correctional facilities currently impress the double roles of custody and treatment (McMinn, 2010). As a result, correctional officers are now called change agents when are supposed to utilize their discretion to help in rehabilitation of inmates while at the same time keeping security through enforcement of rules. Simultaneous handling of custody and treatment generates conflict characterized by some uncertainty since correctional officers can be disciplined if they violate the institutional policies that are aimed at rehabilitating inmates.

Introduction of Prisoner Rehabilitation in the US
Introducing rehabilitation coincided by many USA supreme court ruling which provided inmates with more civil rights while at the same time reducing the ability of correctional officer against reliance on punitive controls. The outcome was due process- focused disciplinary hearings, abolishment of using isolation as disciplinary approach and the creation of formal prisoner’s grievance mechanisms. The decision by the court significantly reduced the powers of correctional officers while at the same time providing inmates with strong countervailing rights. These changes in powers created for officers in correctional institutions view of loss of control and a perception that managers and treatment professionals emerged more respect for prisoners than them. As a result, the perception continue to make correctional officers view themselves as unfairly restated thus generating great ingrained frustration and lack of appreciation by superiors (Parker, 2007). Among the significant outcomes of the perception was that the managers as well as the professional were never at par with the correctional officers. On the eve of the 1970s, the US federal law gave the correctional officers the power to unionize. As a result, the joined strong national unions including the American Federation of states, county as well as municipals workers whose management has perfectly challenged many management policies perceived as not being in the best interest of their rank and file. Such unions are critical since they have power to influence management resource allocation making salaries as well as benefits rising drastically. With such efforts, correctional officers continue to serve under the new guidelines while working with inmates. Therefore, the main change in the role of these officers is simply the shift from authority to service in changing inmates from criminality to harmless persons in the society. The reason behind this move was that harsh punitive measures would do more harm to an offender as compared to the perceived benefits.

Inmate Rehabilitation
Inmate rehabilitation is the process of re-integrating a convicted person into the society with the primary objective to counter reoffending or criminal recidivism. Rehabilitation has been a central goal of correctional system. Its goal rests on an assumption that offenders can be treated and returns to law abiding lifestyle. It includes a great array of initiatives such as, substance abuse, mental health as well as educational services. Additionally, specialty initiatives are developed for sex offenders, women and parolees. Despite their original barbaric roles in the medieval dungeon and torture chamber, from the 18th century, correctional officers have combined punishment element with rehabilitation element to assist prisoners (Morris, & Rothman, 1995). As Michel Foucault the French philosopher puts it, ‘punishment shifted from disciplining the body to disciplining the soul”. Rehabilitation of inmates has remained a critical feature of modern criminal justice system directed at reforming both the character of prisoners and preventing recidivism. Many types of research reveal that exposing prisoners to harsh conditions hardens them into harder criminals. Punitive measures make them develop a negative attitude towards the public and more so the victim and upon release, they easily reoffended as a response to the pain realized in prison. Research also reveals that rehabilitation usually makes offenders understand and appreciate their wrongdoing and in the end, they decide to become law abiding. It is evident that chances of recidivism are low among ex-convicts who went through rehabilitative programs as compared to those who go through punitive controls.

Roles of Correctional Officers in Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation as a changing role of a correctional officer presents various roles to them. Some are traditional with punitive dimension while others are humane and rehabilitative in nature. The roles include the inmate security, offender counseling, religious involvement, vocational training, needs assessment, linkage to specialized services and security of detention facilities. These roles are discussed as follows;

Inmate Security and Rehabilitation
Within penal institutions, correctional officers serve as voices of authority, while at the same time ensuring safety and welfare inmates. As courageous law enforcement service providers, they disrupt violence and confrontations among inmates to ensure order and help in rehabilitating prisoners. Over 434, 870 correctional officers in U.S. as of 2011, correctional officers represent one of the critical components of US criminal justice system. Correctional officers prevent exploitation among prisoners while at the same time protecting them from the angry public. Correctional officers instill peace in the penal institutions by suppressing confrontations among prisoners. They also prevent illicit materials which threaten rehabilitation from entering the penal institutions. This practice is very critical in producing an environment that enables healing from criminality to law abiding life. Research reveals that penal institutions characterized by calmness produce an environment that rehabilitates inmate. Similarly, research shows that penal institutions with chaos and fights, always promotes recidivism among inmates. Therefore, correctional officer plays a critical role in protecting the rights and freedoms of inmates which are key in the rehabilitation process.

Offender Counseling and Rehabilitation
In the rehabilitation process, correctional officers play a critical role of acting as a counselor. As counselors, they take prisoner as clients who need their assistance. Counseling helps many inmates to develop abilities of problem solving and decision making which are critical in reforming the prisons. Much research reveals that counseling dome by correctional officers greatly reduced recidivism among inmates. Counseling also makes inmates find meaning in life and the end; they always come out as law abiding citizens (Robinson & Crow, 2009). Counseling offered by correctional officers’ trains’ inmates to address problems of anxiety which is a key factor that motivates crime. Chemical dependency counseling offered by correctional officers enables prisoners with challenges of substance abuse to get therapeutic help. Counseling also provides relief which is critical I offender rehabilitation. Encouragements from correctional officers make the offender take the sentence positively and come out as a reformed person.

Religious Involvement and Rehabilitation
Correctional institutions continue to utilize research in developing a more constructive alternative for prisoners. Correctional officer involves themselves religious instruction to help prisoners. As correctional officers promote religious involvement among prisoners, many of the prisoners find inner hope as well as meaning in life. In the end, they reform into good citizens who pose no threat to the society upon release (Craig, In Dixon & Gannon, 2013). Many studies reveal that inmates who get involved in religion offend rarely. Re-incarceration among offender who was much involved in religion in many cases is low. The reason is that religion shape people’s meditation, and it easily alters the personal perception among offenders. Therefore, as correctional; officer promotes religious involvement among inmates, it gives them a good basis to rehabilitate since many religions instill morals.

Inmate Vocational Training and Rehabilitation
Correctional officers play the critical role in rehabilitating inmates by giving inmates vocational training. Bearing in mind that there are many factors that promote crime, unemployment or poverty always accounts as major factors. Therefore offering vocational training to inmates empowers the inmate upon release (Lin, 2000). Such training is critical in that they provide a ground that an inmate would rely on for his legitimate survival. Installing such skills among prisoners gives them an opportunity to survive when he is released. This program is a critical rehabilitation tool to inmates with poverty or lack of employment crimes. Correctional officers, therefore, act as trainers to prisoners making rehabilitation objectives possible. They provide trustworthy advice in the effort to improve inmates’’ lives. Many correction departments continue to recognize that inmates who perfectly participate in the programs are more likely to conform to the law whenever they complete their term in penal institutions.

Prisoner Needs Assessment and Rehabilitation
Correctional officers also help inmates who are eager to develop their futures positively by assisting them to choose institutional programs that benefit or suits them. The assessment also helps in identifying barriers to successful rehabilitation (Herberts, 1998). Through communication as well as building relationships with inmates, correctional officers manage to get insights into factors that forced the prisoner into crime. Studies show that approximately 80 percent of the prisoner is dependent on drugs; therefore, convincing them to join appropriate cognitive retraining and substance abuse counseling produces uncountable positive effects. Therefore carrying out need assessment of prisoners to identify best interventions is a critical role played by correctional officers in the process of making rehabilitation successful.

Inmate Specialized Services Linkage and Rehabilitation
The other rehabilitative responsibility of correctional officers is that of acting as links with other agencies both in and outside the community. Penal institution always works with different partners in helping offenders. These partners play critical roles in providing specialized services that are not located within boundaries of penal institutions. Specialized services may include medication, business support among others. Upon completion of vocational training and release, some ex-prisoners may need assistance to start life (Great Britain & Beith, 2011). Therefore, correctional officers become the link between the ex-prisoner and the service provider. In many cases, correctional officers are allowed to work outside of the penal facilities to link the newly released inmates with specialized treatment programs, halfway houses as well as community organizations. Correctional officers are working in prisons also assist in the rehabilitation of inmates by communicating the needs as well as risks to the parole officers, parole boards, judges or to the probation officers to help the offender.

Security of Detention Facilities and Rehabilitation
Maintaining the prison remains critical in the rehabilitation of inmates. The reason is that a single breach in the prison security may lead to contraband drugs, weapons as well as communication devices into the correctional facility, which may hamper rehabilitation. Additionally, compromises on the borders may lead to prisoners’ escape which might destruct rehabilitation (The United States, 2008). Correctional officers always identify such threats and give immediate remedies. Correctional officers ensure the facility is safe for the safety of inmates. Safety protects the offender from other influences in the free society that might tempt him into criminality. This safety is paramount in facilitating an environment for rehabilitation.

Limitations Rehabilitation as a Changing Role of Correctional Officers
Apart from prisoners profiting from rehabilitation as a changing role of correctional officers, it seems to make some inmates worse criminals. Rehabilitation presents leniency of the law against crime. Therefore, many prisoners always take advantage of this role to pretend and get released. Research consistently continues to show that time spent in custody does not successfully rehabilitate many inmates, and that majority of criminals return to crime almost immediately. It is argued that many prisoners learn new and sophisticated ways of committing crimes while they are in prison with fellow convicts (Parker, 2007). This situation also offers them the opportunity to make connections and become involved in group crimes. Rehabilitation programs can also make prisoners cheat to be granted parole.research also reveal that rehabilitation seems to make prison life interesting to some criminals since there is no serious punitive element as before. Rehabilitation also diminishes the main role of punishment. They, therefore, offend immediately they are released. Rehabilitation can also pose a threat of increased crime by encouraging potential criminals. They end up offending since they are sure that the penal life is lenient.

Conclusion
The introduction of issues of human rights remains the genesis of the shift in the roles of correctional officers. Promoted by global activism, rehabilitation remains a key role in the penal sector. Despite I t attracting varied perceptions, its idea so handling offenders serving custodial sentences with human remains something to comment. Contrary, its implementation potentially impacts crime control both negatively and positively. From the positive side, rehabilitation can address habitual offending particularly with inmates who learn from their mistakes. On the other hand, it can promote reoffending apart from having ability to motivate potential criminals. The reason for this is that, people will find prison life comfortable and therefore making them not to fear reoffending. Despite entrenching rehabilitation in social as well as criminal justice policy, the notion that penal institutions never intend to rehabilitate but to punish and protect the public maintains considerable public support in many areas. Improved conditions, as well as opportunities for rehabilitation in penal institutions, generate complaints that current life behind bars remains soft and similar to holiday camping. Resentment from the public also remains fired by the deficits in providing similar services for community rehabilitation. Drug rehabilitation, as an example, is greatly perceived to be easily accessible inside penal institutions than in the outside. Nevertheless, there are many criticisms about the rehabilitation level occurring in prisons, mostly because of lack of funding for rehabilitation programmes as well as prison overcrowding, which hinders effective implementation of rehabilitation. The achievement that penal institutions achieve is hindered further by high number of prisoners lacking primary skills while others suffer from social as well as psychological problems. Many prisoners get released without places to live, thus worsening setbacks of homelessness. Prisons also have cases of mental health problems and drug problems making the efforts of rehabilitation hard. Whatever rehabilitation happens inside the penal institutions, many ex- convicts experience some difficulty in reintegrating back to the society because of community attitude. To conclude, rehabilitation as a changing role for correctional officer remains a good initiative that can help some offenders to come out reformed. In their effort to attain its objectives, there is a need for resources and cooperation from other stakeholders as well as offenders themselves. If this role is not critically examined and implemented well, it easily generates repeat offenders.

Enterprise Architecture for Health Insurance Exchange

The portal design shall take the following interface
Website Company Name (AGRI- POWER PORTAL)

Links navigation Link
Home

Services
Commercial
Accounts
About us
Login
Logout
Farm Chemicals
Farm tools
Farm projects

Horticulture
Livestock
Livestock Faming
Bee keeping
Seeds
Transport

Comments
Agricultural Dash Board Portal Major Display Area
Figure1 : The portal Design for Agricultural Based Enterprise
The agriculture based portal shall provide web-based services to the esteemed customers and the potential customer. The agribusiness portal shall contain three structural designs to incorporate the services to the clients. The portal is a dynamic website that provides all agricultural services across the world. The portal provides services on farm-based services like purchasing chemicals, use of chemicals and consultation services. The portal has horticulture farming, livestock farming, and beekeeping services. The display area provides streaming advertisements on projects and the news about agriculture.

Simple Information Exchanges
The secure health information exchange supports the following services to the clients

Document querying and retrieving
Direct messaging via PUSH technology
The system composes discrete data and information from multiple CCDs that contain detailed data from multiple sources. The system provides data sharing techniques to subscribers through the data mining and data warehousing approach (Bocciarelli, & D’Ambrogio, 2014).

Part B: Integrated Architectures
Enterprise integration for Business Services module supports enterprise process and goals through providing multiplatform programming support platform. The system integrates the business functions using VMware technology that acts as the middleware to support different platforms in other programming languages like XML, COBOL, Java, Microsoft Dot Net and others (Juric, et al…, 2010).

Legacy applications include the business application service and infrastructure services. The modules provide the integration of the database services through the modification of data and information. The sessions support data and information conversion to different formats. The strategies get applied during database development process, data mining activities and during data migration from one database design infrastructure to another.

B2B Integration and management services provide secure transfer and sharing of information between the public and private business enterprises across the world (Dorn, et al…, 2009). The system allows collaboration of business enterprises through subscribing to the Intranet cloud services. The platform supports the integration and interagency communications across the globe. The system supports the G2G systems that allow effective government interventions (Dorn, et al…, 2009). The system facilitates communication between the government agencies. The Interaction services systems support the intra-agency relations through the elimination of barriers for infrastructure principles and standard specified by the EAI policies. Through the interaction services module, inter-agency communications get approved enabling collaboration between people processes and information. The NIEM (National Information Exchange), development services platform, integrates the communication development environments through equalizing sanctions and standards from different agencies.

The system allows designing and creation of solutions depicted within different business entities. The collaboration allows acceptability of the various development standards for business entities to enter into the global market. The NIEM platform links the B2B systems to facilitate mutual interrelationships between different business operations (Dorn, et al…, 2009).

ESB Exploration: The enterprise service bus allows effective communication link between different enterprise activities and function to facilitate effective data and information transfer. All network and communication protocols get implemented through accommodating all sources of networks topologies and standards within the bus (Chandrasekaran, 2010). The bus offer powerful encapsulation, encryption and information hiding techniques to facilitate secure source to destination delivery of data and information (Chandrasekaran, 2010). The Mule architecture serves more effectively and efficiently compared to email based protocols. The message is secure via mule architecture and supports UDDI messaging protocols. The ESB architecture supports the orchestration, transformation, transportation mediation and non-functional consistency that form the core integration principles (Chandrasekaran, 2010).

Smart enterprises the smart enterprise capability is maintained via the incorporation of the extranet and intranet services that facilitate the extraction of data and information from different databases. The system allows digging of data from various databases through data mining techniques. The system supports the smart enterprise feature like intelligent decision support system. The enterprise business system implements the intelligence support capabilities through the use of access service model and the service registry database. The data and the information are supplied through cloud computing services that link the enterprise system to the World Wide Web interfaces. The Virtual technology that implements the industrial formats like the X12, the EDIFACTS, the SWIFT, the ACORD, the HIPAA and the HLA have been applied to support IBM web sphere transformation extension (Chandrasekaran, 2010). The platforms act as the universal transformation engine.

Literature review on SQL

Companies are involved in different operations that result in the generation of information. The information is never discarded rather it should be kept for the future references. The question to ask is how to keep the data. The database concept came previously with the usage of the file database until we came to settle on the sequential databases. The primary databases are the SQL databases and the Oracle databases that do perform the same job but with the application of different principles in the implementation of the functionalities. A database is described as the collection of related data that is organized and stored at a collective place for easily accessing, management and administration of the data.

History of databases and SQL
Database came in to ensure that the data stored can be retrieved or shared amongst the users without the know that there is sharing. In 1970, Dr. Codd published a paper “A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks” that was the building block of the relational database system. He described a new structure for data within the database that brought the relational database system that is still in use up to current (Sumathi & Esakkirajan, 2007). On the other side, Chamberlin and Boyce (employees at IBM Corporation, Inc) developed a query language they referred to as Specifying Queries As Relational Expressions (SQUARE). The language did apply the set theory a predicate mathematics to have the select of data from the database. SQUARE acted as the building block for another language (Instructional Software Research and Development Group., 2006).

In 1974, Chamberlin and Boyce refined the SQUARE language to publish the Structured English Query Language (SEQUEL). The refinement focused on the data retrieval from the database, and they had taken the focus to applying the top-down programming that required the linear notation, and readable programs which are easy to modify and maintain. The result of the implemented got the description of the SEQUEL as structured (Chamberlin & Boyce, 1974). In 1979, SQL got into its existence by dropping the vowels EUE, the SEQUEL was found out to be a registered mark trade for Hawker Siddeley Aircraft Company that forced IBM to change the SEQUEL to SQL.

SQL Architectural framework
The architecture of Pl/SQL describes its working with the Oracle. The PL/SQL block is made up procedural and SQL statements as it describes how the SQL in Oracle interprets the PL/SQL block. The PL/SQL architecture contains the block, engine, and the Oracle server. The engine is concerned with the compiling and executing the SQL block, and the PL/SQL engine contains the PL/SQL procedural statement executor that executes the procedural statements. On the other side, the Oracle server contains the SQL statement executor that executes the SQL statement (Rosenzweig & Silvestrova, 2004). Therefore, the PL/SQL engine is in coordination with the Oracle Server for purposes of processing the block.

According to Instructional Software Research and Development Group (2006), SQL statements can be classified either;

Data Definition Language (DDL)
Data Manipulation Language (DML)
Data Query Language (DQL)
Data Control Language (DCL)
Data Administration Statements (DAS)
Transaction Control Statements (TCS)
Features of SQL
Structured Query Language (SQL) has got developed and meets the ANSI and the ISO standards as a computer language that can use in creation and manipulation of hierarchical databases. SQL has the capability of allowing the proficient user to undertake some administration activities such as create some views, update, delete records and retrieve the data from the database. It is very simple and easy for one to learn because it is sequential and structured in nature and it is to work with some other desirable database programs such as MS Access, and Sybase (Groff & Weinberg, n.d).

SQL database, the SQL Server 2005 and SQL Server 2008, have the data mining architecture that enabled the models to enhance business intelligence. Business intelligence components can easily get integrated into SQL server that includes the On-line analytical processing (OLAP), SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) and the reporting services (Crat, Tang & MacLennan, 2013). SQL has been on developed and currently exhibit some attractive, unique features of supporting character sets, collations, and translations. A transaction can roll back on save points. The database language supports Boolean data type and large objects of binary and the character LOBs (Kreines, 2000).

Benefits of SQL
SQL does not require navigational instructions as it is coded without embedded data that simplifies the retrieval of data.
The applications applying the SQL are portable as well as the language gives a high level of abstraction, and its internal implementation makes it independent.
SQL is simple to learn and easily handle complex situations at the same time the language has no ambiguity about the way a query interprets the data.
The SQL is used in definition of the data structure; control the accessibility of data, delete, insertion and modification of data
Proposal
Iteration 1: Orientation
The orientation program captured my attention by familiarizing me to a few identities. I first had to sign the internship acceptance form from the Human Resource department after which I am to be directed to my designated department. Within the working point, I will introduce myself to the work mates and move around to have the familiarization of the company strategic location. I will visit the specified departments starting with the operational section from where I will have to understand the company core business operations, procedures, principles and the goals to achieve. The working conditions will also be provided to avoid the misrepresentation at working point.

Iteration 2: Understanding the SQL concepts
After the understanding of the company operations and my expectations, I will take some critical time to have the deep understanding of the SQL concepts. Databases go by experience and understanding of what the requirements are according to the company procedures. During the iteration, I will make some consultation from my working mates so that I take to know where I need to take the concentration of understanding. Secondly, I will undertake some online research to have the deep experience of coding and the most critical operations of the SQL. The model accordance to the Model will be under study. The personal studying will further involve the data analytics and the understanding of the big data. The iteration will be the preparation for the training that I will be taken through by the assigned supervisor. At the end of the iteration, I would have sharpened my knowledge and have the best theoretical understanding of SQL as far as the database is concerned.

Iteration 3: Training
The training will go through the application of the SQL and the implementation of the Oracle databases. The training will be conducted primarily to have the clear, practical understanding of the Oracle database and the SQL database. Define the principles of the application modes of the databases. The training will be conducted through the labs of the company where normal staff training and seminars take place. The process will be the preparation of the primary object of designing a database exercising gall the database administration and maintenance. Therefore, by the end of the training session, I would have gained the practical skills and experience of database administration.

Iteration 4: SQL Database designing
The iteration will get me through the steps prior designing and development of a database. First, I will have to undertake some feasibility so that I may be able to define the requirements of the company and the end users to be adhered to during the SQL database development. After then the designing of the application will take its course by applying primarily all the knowledge of SQL database to have the database that meets the determined requirements after that the last iteration will follow.

Iteration 5: SQL database administration and management
The iteration is the other critical activity that I will be involved. The primary expectations are ensuring that the database is up to date the demands of the end users are accomplished. During the process I will be updating the database, deleting some entries. Furthermore, create the views procedures and the queries as well as reports and more so enhance the security within the database. Actually, at the end of it all, I would have got the best knowledge than ever that will get me into the market with the desirable experience and skills.